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In a recent article (Africa - A continent on the Rise! - https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/africa-continent-rise-dr-amos-mensah/), I quoted the late Nelson Mandela of South Africa who once said: ‘We stand at the dawn of an African century, a century where Africa will take its rightful place among the nations of the world’- how sweet these words of wisdom from a brave African Hero. Unfortunately, the firm grip on Africa and the determination of neocolonial powers as seen through both covert & overt recent events across the continent (notably the destruction of Libya) has prompted me to ask - Will Africa ever Take its Rightful Place among the Nations of the World? I have written a cursory about the internal weakness hindering the growth and the development process across the continent Africa (see: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/africa-missing-opportunity-reap-full-benefits-golden-age-mensah/ ) and so will not repeat it in this article. The focus of this article is to highlight the reality of external meddling and the continued colonization of the continent. I have no doubt these external meddling has played a huge role in the slowing down of Africa’s progress in development.Amos CFA2

As a case study - let look at how the use of the CFA franc has been and still being used to control many African countries. Come to think of it - 14 African countries (i.e. Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon) still use the neocolonial currency – CFA (CFA stands for Coopération financière en Afrique centrale ("Financial Cooperation in Central Africa"). The CFA franc was introduced to the French colonies by France after the colonies gained their independence. Through the adoption and use of this currency, these former colonies still pay what is popularly believed to be a Colonial Tax (perpetual indebtedness to France)How? - Well, by the structure of the Terms & Conditions to use the CFA - these former colonies have to accept to deposit their currency reserves at the French National Bank in Paris. The terms and conditions also dictate that these colonies will have access to only 15% of their own currency deposited at the French National Bank in Paris. The remaining 85% of their own money has to be borrowed from the French Government at the going market rate if they want to access their own deposit. If this is not pure colonialism and the slowing down of progress - I don't know what to call it. Notice that - All finance ministers of these 14 countries must consult and seek directions from the French minister of finance anytime these countries have to meet with the IMF or WB for any financial negotiation. Unlike most real sovereign nations, these 14 countries can’t even print their own money when they need it because the CFA is tired to the EURO.Amos Neo3

The fact is democracy in Africa is a facade - France (and all former colonial powers) never really completed the decolonization process; they have deliberately maintained systems and structures (i.e. Monitory/Economic, Political & Security Structures) that allows them to take full advantage of their former colonies. These colonial structures never allow their former colonies to freely decide on their developmental path. So these 14 CFA countries just like the rest of the countries on the continent are still under the firm grips of their colonial powers - mostly being controlled and manipulated through such proxy institutions as IMF & WB. The only time an African politician echoes the sentiments of his people is during elections, but notice how right afterwards, they turn their attention to fulfilling the austerity programs of these proxy institutions instead of the hopes and aspirations of the citizenry.

 For a brief period in the continent contemporary history, the only country which managed to resist the claws of these colonial powers for a while and somehow managed to champion its own development path was Libya. However, through a series of carefully orchestrated lies and deception of neocolonialists – (Championed by Nicolas Sarkozy of France, David Cameroun of UK, Hilary Clinton and Barack Obama of USA) - all hiding behind the banner of Human Right and Democracy - We all know the end story of Libya today. Indeed, the destruction of Libya destabilized and shook the continent to the core. It led to the reintroduction of slave trade and a booming human organ trade in Libya, not forgetting the countless number of Africans perishing in the Mediterranean Sea daily.

So for Mandela’s dream (our dream) of Africa Taking its Rightful Place among the Nations of the World to become a realityit is incumbent upon all Africans (citizens of the continent) to stand up and confront the ongoing covert & overt Destabilization/Destruction of the continent, while being vigilant of all the other subtle neocolonialist schemes hampering our developmental efforts, because I believe, the Place for African People is Africa - Not the Bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. 

As usual your comments, criticisms, questions and point(s) of correction etc. are welcome. Please kindly comment with positive suggestion(s) on how to develop our continent further, pushing the frontier beyond the current status-quo. Thanks.

Source: Dr. Amos Mensah Lecturer - Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology (KNUST)

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What one gets in far too many Afro shops in Hamburg isn’t just bad customer service; it’s customer disservice at its most shameful display.

President Magufuli says tests were found to be faulty after goat, sheep and pawpaw samples test positive for COVID-19.

Tanzania's President John Magufuli has dismissed imported coronavirus testing kits as faulty, saying they returned positive results on samples taken from a goat and a pawpaw. Magufuli made the remarks during an event in Chato in northwestern Tanzania on Sunday. He said there were "technical errors" with the tests.

wikipedia COVID 19 testing

The president, whose government has already drawn criticism for being secretive about the coronavirus outbreak and has previously asked Tanzanians to pray the coronavirus away, said he had instructed Tanzanian security forces to check the quality of the kits.

They had randomly obtained several non-human samples, including from a pawpaw, a goat and a sheep, but had assigned them human names and ages.

These samples were then submitted to Tanzania's laboratory to test for the coronavirus, with the lab technicians left deliberately unaware of their origins.

Samples from the pawpaw and the goat tested positive for COVID-19, the president said, adding this meant it was likely that some people were being tested positive when, in fact, they were not infected by the coronavirus.

"There is something happening. I said before we should not accept that every aid is meant to be good for this nation," Magufuli said, adding the kits should be investigated. 

On Saturday, Magufuli announced that he had placed an order for a herbal treatment for the coronavirus touted by the president of Madagascar.

"I have already written to Madagascar's president and we will soon dispatch a plane to fetch the medicine so that Tanzania can also benefit from it," he said.

The herbal remedy, called "Covid Organics" and prepared by the Malagasy Institute for Applied Research, is made out of Artemisia, a plant cultivated on the Indian Ocean island of Madagascar.

Despite a lack of scientific evidence, President Andry Rajoelina of Madagascar claimed that the remedy has already cured some Madagascans of COVID-19. Children returning to school have been required to take it.

Source: Aljazeera
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Those affected could stay until June 30, 2020.

The COVID-19 pandemic has restricted the mobility of holders of the Schengen Visa, which allows tourists and business travelers to stay in the Schengen area for up to 90 days. However, the numerous national
lockdowns and flight cancelations will inevitably cause many to remain in the Schengen area after their visas had expired.

To prevent that, the German Ministry of Interior has extended the residence permit of all Schengen visa holders who entered the country on March 17, 2020, or later. The temporary protection also implies that those affected may have a  possible means to work until June 30 ("Verordnung zur vorübergehenden Befreiung von Inhabern ablaufender Schengen-Visa vom Erfordernis eines Aufenthaltstitels auf Grund der COVID-19-Pandemie"). However, we do advise holders of the Schengen Visa to contact the Ministy of Interior for further information.

This prevents them from falling into illegal status and allows them to access vital services that are inaccessible to those without legal status.

The extension is from April 16 to June 30, 2020.

Source:https://www.hamburg.de/innenbehoerde/allgemein/13564362/visaverlaengerung-coronavirus/

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Rwandan President -Paul Kagame

Afro News

Does Africa have the need to continuously borrow Money for her today’s survival while creating debt-burden the next generations? The simplest answer that can be given is “it depends”, -but on what?

In conventional economic theories, we are told that when a government prints money, it exposes itself to inflation because there will be more money in the system to chase fewer goods, causing the money to lose its value.
However, if we can think beyond these theories, and accept the fact that these theories were developed by humans; individuals with brain capacities same as ours and we also have the capacity to device alternative models to solve our own problems, then, we can start to ask questions like: How can there be fewer goods in the system if the money printed is used as an incentive for innovation and production rather than serving as an object for demanding goods and services?; what is the central duty of a sovereign government when it prints paper and calls it money? What are the fundamental differences between monies printed into an economy and those borrowed into the same economy?

Questions of these kinds can help us probe deeper to understand the system that controls us better.

To a very large extent, when a government borrows money, it shows the lack of ability and understanding of that government to an effective management of the economy. Unfortunately, the idea of going to another sovereign country to borrow paper (fiat money) instead of using our sovereign status to print money and manage this printed money to support our developmental projects and programs has become the normal and easy way for almost all African countries since attaining independence status.
Why should someone print paper and hand it over to you as money and let you pay back not with the same paper (paper as used here means what one has the right to print, in this case, if America prints dollar for us to support our economy, we should be able to print our own currencies to pay back after our economy has become stronger and not to pay back with dollar which we do not have the right to print and as such, it becomes a value for us), instead, we are required to pay back these paper loans  in values, resources, and efforts? I know it is not as simple as I am putting it in this piece, but the truth it is that, it is also not as impossible as they make it looks to us.

Before going further, it is important to point out that in an extreme distressed circumstance, a country may borrow money in a 1 or 2 cases (this happened to continental Europe, wherein, after the Second World War when America has to print and loan out money to Europe under the Marshall Plan to help them recover from the total breakdown). However, it is so not normal for a sovereign nation to resort to borrowing of paper money as a way of life. In fact, no one has borrowed her way into freedom or development.

At this stage, I want to point out, first and foremost that every sovereign state, no matter how small it may be, has the right and authority to print and manage its own money.

Second, I want to state categorically that the act of printing money does NOT result in inflation (that concept is a hoax at least). Rather, it is the mode of management of the printed money that causes inflation or deflation.

For example, if the government of Ghana (inset here the name of any African country of your choice) realises that a region/state needs a road and it estimates the cost of constructing the road to be 50 Billion Ghana Cedis (inset here the currency of your selected African country). If the government goes on to print 50 Billion Ghana Cedis for the purpose of this project, and then calls on a Chinese or an European construction agency to construct this road on a condition that 20% of the capital cost is giving to the government or the political party in power as a kick-back, the following is what will happen:

1. The Chinese or the European company will demand that the payment is made in Chinese Yuan or European Euro. This means, the government of Ghana has to place the local currency it has printed on the international financial market to demand for Yuan or Euro. When this happens, there will be more Cedi (than it should be) on the market and if there are not equally more customers on the market demanding for Cedi, then this automatically reduce the value or relevance of Cedi, hence drastic or continuous exchange rate depreciation of the Cedi.

2. Once, the company pays the 20% of the capital cost to the government or party in power, it immunes itself of any system of control that is meant to regulate and manage the economy of the said African countries. In this case, the foreign construction company will construct a road with a quality far below what the money it has received should normally construct, it will under-pay local labour if it ever employs one, and it will invade taxes and all other statutory payments. The compositions of these negative actions will weaken the economic management regime of the said country.

Additionally, it is important to consider that the 20% (paid in kickback) which has gone in the hands of the ruling gangs as a mere paper because they have received that without working, or exchanging any value for it. The effect from this is no different from the damage the economy will suffer when a criminal sits in his or her room and print counterfeit and release them in the economy. Yet this money will be cheerful release in our economy through unproductive and abusive channels such as paying for sex of, and rent for ‘slay queens’ and ‘fuck boys’; sponsoring of political hooliganism to destroy lives and properties in our countries; and embarking on expensive holiday trips abroad and showing  offs at public gathering and events.

In the end of all the above scenarios, what will happen is that Ghana has used it sovereign status to print 50 billion in cash/paper but that 50 billion paper has not been properly managed to translate into /create actual wealth in equivalence of 50 billion. This, among many other negative economic consequences will result in inflation (more money in the system chasing fewer goods) because the focus of the money printed was to serve as object for demand rather than being an incentive to induce production and innovation. It will also result in exchange rate depreciation and damaging of the country’s economic sovereign worth because no one can trust a system managing by ineffective heads.

On the other hand, if the government prints 50 billion of the local currency for the purpose of constructing a road and this government ensures that the capacity of local construction companies are strengthened to execute the project, it will have no need to put such huge amount of the local currency on the global financial market for foreign exchange (because local companies are paid in local currency) to damage the exchange rate value of the local currency. Ethiopia has been able to developed strong local Construction, Banking, and Telecommunication system to champion the country’s development internally. Other African countries can learn from the Ethiopian system.

In the event that 50 Billion is printed to embark on road construction, all that the governments has to do to avoid inflation is to internally manage this printed money to ensure that:

  1. It is fairly and widely distributed
  2. It translates into multiples of actual values and wealth in the economy

Why is Fair and Widely Distribution of Printed Money Important?

First of all, every member of a society has some potential(s) or value in them which when is encouraged and tapped, will contribute to national development. However, this value cannot just be tapped unless regimes of rewards and recognition are instituted as a modality of exchange for these inherent values in the citizens.

After printing money, the government has a management duty to ensure that the money does not get concentrated in the hands of a few people; rather it must be wisely and widely distributed with an objective to use it as a bait to attract and uncover hidden potentials in citizens for national development.

How can this be done?

Whereas the main objectives of businesses owners will be to maximize profit, the government who has a duty to provide social good must at all times aim at maximizing quality and ensure that standards are strictly adhered to. When this is done, contractors are expected to spend the money received fairly on ‘all’ sectors of the economy to ensure widely and fairly distribution of the money.

For example, by insisting on quality and adherence to standards, the construction of a single road can lead to: increase demand for general logistics; available capital for trading and operations of the banking sector; higher employment and welfare for citizens; and capital returns for government to embark on other project generated through efficient and transparent tax system and many other benefits to the economy.

When the printed money is efficiently managed to inject the above benefits in the economy, the beneficiaries, will subsequently use and reuse the money/the benefits to create multiples of values (far higher than the original value of 50 billion) in the economy, thereby, promoting steady and long-term development of the country.

Will Printing of Money rather than Borrowing be an Easy thing to do by any African Country?

Certainly not, no single African country will find it easy to adopt this strategy; it even seems impossible because, lending to keeping Africa and her future in debt is a big business that helps those who want to keep Africans in an unending slavery use in controlling both the labour and human capital, and natural resources on the continent. By this any country/leader that makes such an attempt will face strong sabotage, sanction, and likely power instability from the controllers of the system.

Nonetheless, Africa will certainly win, when all or most African countries come together in unity and make this a continental policy. Without, doing this in unity, we must consider it that we are ready to bring our next generation into a new mode of slavery.

My name is Kwadwo Agyei Yeboah and I love Africa. You can always connect with me on Facebook to talk about Africa.

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Paris: Secret documents leaked on the fiasco in Burkina Faso expose troubling information on the undercover activities of the American Multi-Billionaire Bill Gates in the small African nation and across the region. Intelicor veterans in Paris express unease as the Burkinabe government led by Prime Minister Paul Kaba Thieba resigned  

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-46930537

A leading Intelicor veteran thinks that the reason why President Roch Marc Christian Kabore demanded the resignation of the Prime Minister is related to the matter of the proposed release of genetically modified (GMO) mosquitoes in Burkina Faso under the sponsorship of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

The story began in January 2018, when Bill Gates pledged USD $45 million to the health initiative in Burkina Faso. Some felt that the funds were a decoy to cover bribery to top government officials for allowing the program to release the GMO mosquitoes in Burkina Faso. The GMO mosquitoes were programmed at Imperial College London under a grant from Bill Gates to sterilize natural mosquitoes and humans across the African continent over time

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/researchers-to-release-genetically-engineered-mosquitoes-in-africa-for-first-time/

The terrifying news of the secret project for Human Sterilization of Africans with GMO mosquitoes alarmed African leaders, who quickly came down hard on President Kabore forcing him to act. Similar teams are working in Mali and Uganda. The homing endonuclease gene (HEG) that sterilizes the female mosquitoes also could be passed through saliva to humans during bites and the human in turn could pass it on through sexual intercourse to another human, in a cascade that could have the entire Black Continent exterminated before anything could be done about it.  This is why 170 Global Groups called for Moratorium on the release of these new genetic extinction technology at the UN Convention

http://www.etcgroup.org/content/160-global-groups-call-moratorium-new-genetic-extinction-technology-un-convention

The GMO mosquitoes were moved into Burkina Faso from UK illegally under EU regulations

http://www.genewatch.org/uploads/f03c6d66a9b354535738483c1c3d49e4/GM_mosquitoes_in_Burkina_Faso_final.pdf

Ànd fresh evidence from trials in Cayman Islands, Panama and Brazil show that the Oxitec’s GM mosquitoes failed to reduce the female mosquitoes  population

https://gmwatch.org/en/news/latest-news/18275-new-evidence-of-failure-of-oxitec-s-gm-mosquito-trials

It goes to reinforce what critics have always said, that it is not about the mosquitoes but about making people sterile.

Investigations revealed that, of the $45 million dollars pledged by Bill Gates, $10 million dollars were earmarked for family planning

https://philanthropynewsdigest.org/news/gates-pledges-45-million-for-health-initiatives-in-burkina-faso

In the secret deal, the Minister of Health of Burkina Faso Professor Nicolas Meda  appointed the wife of the Prime Minister Anne Thieba as ambassador for family planning

https://www.advancefamilyplanning.org/burkina-faso-appoints-her-excellency-anne-thieba-ambassador-family-planning

And so she has authority over the funds. However, some say that “it is to keep it within the family”, that raised the smoking gun prompting in-depth investigation by President Kabore and could have exposed the comprising evidence against Prime Minister Thieba. The Intelicor veteran said “in all cases, we see a pattern, that Bill Gates uses monetary bribes disguised as philanthropic donations to compromise African leaders, to take actions with devastating consequences for their nations”.  

The HIDDEN AGENDA is usually not fully understood by the African leaders the source continues. According to a business consultant who has been involved in tracking Bill Gates’ investments in biotechnology, the main focus for Bill Gates is to have the controlling shares in the biotechnology companies for food production sold in Africa as GMO crops. With partners such as Monsanto (now under the German company Bayer with a troubled Nazi past

https://www.peoplesworld.org/article/bayer-monsanto-merger-cant-erase-nazi-chemists-past/

Bill Gates will control the food security and polity of Africa and could at any moment exterminate the Black Africans in the Continent as his partners did in Vietnam and Auschwitz with agent Orange and Chlorine Gas. Bill Gates used pseudo-names Boko Haram in Nigeria and Al-Shabab (formaerly unknown local Islamic groups with tens of followers) in Kenya to bring Black Africa’s fastest growing populations to a standstill. Boko Haram, Al-Shabab and ISIS are all funded by Bill Gates and were trained by Blackwater

http://www.pravdareport.com/business/companies/14-10-2010/115363-machines_of_war_blackwater_monsanto_billgates-0/

The Western governments are culprits in the crime, until the coming of Donald Trump the U.S. was the main sponsor in partnership with Bill Gates! Bill Gates owns the majority shares in Monsanto/Bayer

http://naturalsociety.com/big-owner-monsanto-shares-bill-gates-depopulation-agenda-exposed/

For example, Bill Gates’ acquisition of Ginkgo a $1 billion USD biotech company in Boston MA that prints DNA for GMO crops https://www.cnbc.com/2018/12/21/bill-gates-backed-start-up-ginkgo-bioworks-prints-synthetic-dna.html will give him control over the food security in Africa, should the continent go GMO. Africans would not out of free-will give up their natural crops for GMOs except if they are forced to do so. An agronomist Anaïs Étienne says Africans would be left without choice because all the fields are being cleared by Boko Harma fighters and their farmers driven out to displaced people camps and would be given GMO crops to plant during rehabilitation through NGOs and UN organisations supported by the Gates Foundations.

Ismail Kadir, a real estate agent in Maiduguri, Nigeria says “all my foreign clients operating NGOs are taking rents for 5 to 10 years and I ask them what would they be doing here in ten years, if they do not think that the insurgency would last that long”. Bill Gates is operating a special type of business philanthropy, whereby the aim is to create the problem of insurgency and offer the solution with GMO crops which will guarantee him as the main supplier of seeds and hence food, then grow it into a business worth $1 trillion USD by 2030

https://howwemadeitinafrica.com/seizing-africas-rapidly-growing-food-market-worth-1tn-2030/59729/

On the other hand, Claudia McAnthony a reproductive health expert on sabbatical in an elite laboratory in Paris says “making Africans sterile would mean their women would go for invitro-fertilization (IVF) to seek for help to conceive, but their ovarian eggs would be poached for embryonic stem cell research as young Africans are killed for experiments in European and American laboratories of companies seeking to clone human organs for sale, a business worth over $30 trillion USD by 2030”.

Nigeria and Kenya supply most of the ovarian eggs used in embryonic stem cell research in Europe and America, only to leave the donors die slowing in Africa from kidney failure, liver failure, cancers and infections. It is convenient for Bill Gates to hire for the crimes against humanity, people posing as Islamists paid in US dollars through proxies and blame it on Islamic fundamentalists. Bill Gates shows up frequently for photo-ops on Polio with African leaders and leaves donations to feed the corrupt practices in the continent. The Polio program has been a very big cover for Bill Gates as the good man from America, while he uses it to facilitate clandestine operations including administering sterilizing agents

https://www.lifesitenews.com/new/unicef-nigeria-polio-vaccine-contaminated-withsterilizing-agents-scientis

And using the vehicles marked as vaccination team to convey Boko Haram fighters beyond military checkpoints. The process began since 2009 in the food growing region of Northeast Nigeria.

The mercenaries hired first from Liberia

https://www.counterpunch.org/2009/04/06/blackwater-in-liberia/

Sierra-Leone, and later from Libya, Chad, Niger, by Blackwater/Academie/Xe owned by Bill Gates and Monsanto/Bayer

https://www.voltairenet.org/article179691.html

Fighters are paired $10,000 a month as Boko Haram fighters in Nigeria (https://www.voanews.com/a/a-13-2009-03-06-voa39-68678567/408730.html ) by Bill Gates. The Boko Haram attacks will intensify as the elections in Nigeria draws near as it is now clear Bill Gates is supporting the opposition leader Atiku Abubakar who he could convince to allow GMO crops in Nigeria. In a recent visit to the U.S facilitated by Bill Gates, at a time there is a government shutdown it is clear Atiku Abubakar was not welcome anywhere within the US government and US Congress, but for a publicity stunt, and an opportunity to seal up the deal with Bill Gates in person.  Atiku Abubakar has been barred from the U.S. pending US Congressional investigation on corrupt practices by him and his family in the United States from Nigeria

https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/download/report-psi-staff-report-keeping-foreign-corruption-out-of-the-united-states-four-case-histories

Many experts expect Bill Gates to sponsor dramatic Boko Haram attacks aimed at embarrassing the government of President Buhari of Nigeria and to help the opposition

https://www.thenigerianvoice.com/news/274825/us-warns-of-plan-by-boko-haram-to-carry-out-terrorist-attack.html

Some think that Bill Gates using his Boko Haram mercenaries have planned attacks with aim of assassinations of top officials to demonstrate to Nigerians that their government is weak on security. The government of Burkina Faso has been in partnership with the US government under the Obama administration and Bill Gates, and provided its territory for U.S. military bases for training of the top mercenaries for Boko Haram to fight in Nigeria.

Some have suggested that, Bill Gates and George Soros financed the coup in Burkina Faso in 2015 to maintain these military bases for sponsorship of the insurgency in Nigeria and for destabilization of the entire West African region

https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2015/09/21/did-africom-engineer-military-coup-in-burkina-faso.html

The Bill Gates sponsored Jihadists have now turned against the Burkinabe government as relations soured because of pressure from African leaders  (https://m.news24.com/Africa/News/13-dead-in-burkina-faso-after-suspected-jihadist-attack-20190102 ). There is growing dissatisfaction among African leaders with actions of Bill Gates on the African Continent. Even more distressful is the connivance with leaders of Western Countries like France, Germany and Britain, who have collaborated in the destabilization of Africa.

The growing popularity of China is a direct reflection of the feeling of unease in African capitals that the entire Western countries have gone rouge. According to Laurent Kosic, a political analyst in Paris, who has lived for over a decade in Africa, said “ this is typical of Africa, they would rather avoid you than pick a fight, but what they need now is a total ban of genetically modified organisms across the continent”. “The effort by Bill Gates to sterilize the entire black people of Africa with GMO foods and GMO mosquitoes all fits well with UNFPA targets to depopulate the continent and provide a means for perpetual colonialism” – he added.

The watch is on as President Kabore names Christophe Dabire as the new prime minister, but the last is yet to be heard from the events unravelling in Burkina Faso.

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-46930537

Source: Sussy Vozniak, reporter for Intelicor Press, Vienna

DR. FRANCE-AIMÉE GAÏL

Lifestyle

CEO of Livenat SAS, Dr. France Aimée Gaïl, in an interview on Radio TopAfric’s health show, encouraged the use of natural-based cosmetic products because it has proven to be a much healthier option.

Dr. France Aimée Gaïl graduated from the University of Orléans with a PH.D. in Organic Chemistry and has expertise in the Pharmaceutical field as well as product development. Her experience as a chemist has driven her to develop healthy products for all hair types.

The company’s brand, DEVANCE COSMETIQUES based in France, has since 2013 produced the best natural based cosmetic products, she says.

DEVANCE COSMETIQUES has products for all hair types, namely; shampoos, conditioners, hair oil, to mention a few.

 In response to a question from a listener, Dr. France Aimée reiterated that people experiencing alopecia, a common autoimmune disorder that often results in unpredictable hair loss, can use DEVANCE COSMESTIQUES natural based oil to restore hair mostly if the condition is not genetically transmitted.

WHAT ARE NATURAL BASED COSMETICS?

Natural based cosmetics are cosmetics made from raw materials sourced from nature, such as plants and minerals, and a renewable natural source.

People who live in Hamburg can access the hair products at the Modern Hair Creation Salon, Lübecker Straße 82, 22087 Hamburg.

Alternatively, one can visit www.devance-cosmetiques.com or place your order on Amazon.de.

A new discovery could explain why obese people are more likely to develop cancer, scientists say. A type of cell the body uses to destroy cancerous tissue gets clogged by fat and stops working, the team, from Trinity College Dublin, found.

Obesity is the biggest preventable cause of cancer in the UK after smoking, Cancer Research UK says.  And more than one in 20 cancer cases - about 22,800 cases each year in the UK - are caused by excess body weight.  Experts already suspected fat sent signals to the body that could both damage cells, leading to cancer, and increase the number of them.

Now, the Trinity scientists have been able to show, in Nature Immunology journal, how the body's cancer-fighting cells get clogged by fat. And they hope to be able to find drug treatments that could restore these "natural killer" cells' fighting abilities.

'Lose some weight'

Prof Lydia Lynch said: "A compound that can block the fat uptake by natural killer cells might help.  "We tried it in the lab and found it allowed them to kill again.

"But arguably a better way would be to lose some weight - because that is healthier for you anyway." Dr Leo Carlin, from the Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, said: "Although we know that obesity increases the risk of 13 different types of cancer, we still don't fully understand the mechanisms underlying the link.

"This study reveals how fat molecules prevent immune cells from properly positioning their tumour-killing machinery, and provides new avenues to investigate treatments. "A lot of research focuses on how tumours grow in order to find metabolic targets to stop them, so this is a reminder that we should consider the metabolism of immune cells too."

Four years ago a publication was made Ghanaians living in Hamburg, Germany demanding answers from authorities about the rampant death of their countrymen. Years have passed but the toll of such deaths has neither ceased nor decreased. It is clear that death is inevitable but the frequency and circumstance is what is worrying.

It is upon this back drop that a discussion on that topic was held on the health show hosted by Effya on TopAfric radio and was covered by the NDR Das. This could be a huge step to drawing the attention of the right authorities to come to the aid of the Ghanaian community.

Within the public sphere the theory such as doctors intentionally killing their victims is purported to be one of the causes of such deaths.

During the radio discussion the following factors were enumerated to be possibly contributing to such premature death; Irresponsible self medication, unhealthy and sedentary life styles, physical inactivity, under utilisation of the health care system, religious and cultural beliefs and practices, ignorance and lack of information, double and quadruple jobs to cater for families and acquisitions of properties back home, genetics, environment etc. 

Recommendations to counteracting the problem will be to negate the above enumerated possible causes.

 As public Health scientists we see the issue as public health emergency which threatens the human security within the Ghanaian community in Hamburg. An anecdotal evidence of the issue at stake could be true but not enough deal with the problem.

To a achieve the desired result, a holistic approach is needed hence an urgent need for scientific research that encompasses needs assessments , data collection, analysis  and findings to draw and implement a comprehensive public health intervention which is participatory and culturally tailored to mitigate the problem.

The negative impacts of the continuous premature death of Ghanaians cannot be overemphasised. It affects the families and society at large as well as the economy here in Germany and Ghana. For this reason we would like to call on stakeholders to support the worthy course by funding such project. We are looking up to the Ghana Embassy, German Health ministry and other such interested institutions to heed to this call so as to ensure that such premature deaths would be a thing of the past through the implementation of public health interventions.
Ghanaians dying premature in Hamburg!!!

Aileen Ashe (Public Health scientist and language and culture mediator)
Ursula D’Almeida (pharmacist and  Public Health Scientist)

There is hardly anything that contributes to a better mood or offers more fun than one of the most beautiful pastimes in the world. But the importance of a healthy and regular sex life really is often underestimated.

Here are eight good reasons why you should not neglect your sex life. Because this is what happens to your body when you stop having sex:
Why a healthy sex life not only ensures a good mood

1. You get sick more often

If you don’t have sex for a long time, your immune system becomes significantly weaker. Germs then have an easier job of spreading in your body and you can catch a cold or get the flu more easily. So, just by having more sex, you can help keep your herbal remedy teas in the closet!

2. Your stress levels increase

Sex is a great way to reduce your stress levels. Regular sex reduces the amount of stress hormones and makes you feel more relaxed in everyday life. Without this important balance, you could become a ticking time bomb!

3. It’s harder for you to get aroused

It’s hard to believe, but true: If you don’t regularly “practice,” it’s difficult for a lot of people to become aroused. Men can experience problems having erections and it can be harder for women to have an orgasm. So, you have to stay on top of things to make sure the “switch” always remains on.

4. Your dreams change
Some people suddenly notice that they have strange dreams when their sex life is suffering. It can mean that you unexpectedly start dreaming about sex or have orgasms in your sleep.

5. Over time you lose your desire to have sex

If your body notices that you’re having a prolonged dry spell in the sexual sense, the production of sex hormones reduces. You feel less like having sex if you have been abstinent for a while. In addition, your libido will eventually feel different. And this is all due to the fact that your sex hormones are slowly vanishing.

6. You’ll feel more distance between your partner and yourself

When a couple in a relationship only rarely sleep together, their interpersonal distance becomes greater. You may start to have feelings of uncertainty related to your partner and other people will seem more attractive to you.

7. It lowers your feeling of self-worth

It is not surprising that a person’s self-worth is harmed, if that individual does not regularly feel desired. But a lack of sex has been proven to affect a person’s well-being, leading to sadness or depression when sex is absent from their lives. Studies have shown that having sex regularly helps fight depression. It can sometimes even work as well as antidepressants.

8. Your risk of cancer increases

For men, the risk of prostate cancer increases when they don’t have sex for a longer period of time. So it’s not a bad idea for men to “flush out” the pipes. Because then the risk is significantly reduced.

Well, if all this isn’t motivation enough, then I don’t know what is! For all these reasons, it would be almost irresponsible not to make love more regularly, don’t you think?!

Source: hefty.com

This article was first published in 2014! 
The rate at which Ghanaians are dying prematurely in Hamburg -Germany is alarming and it is time authorities begin to ask questions and provide answers. Life expectancy has improved tremendously in Germany over the years.

In 2012 the life expectancy in Germany increased to about 81.00 years. That for women was at 83.30 years and for men 78.60 years. If statistics available to TopAfric is correct, the Ghana community buried over 30 people 2014, burried 46 people in 2016. As at Nov 2018, more than 30 Ghanaians have been burried. The average age was just around 45 years.                                                                   

The irony is that Ghanaians are dying more than all other Black -/Africans in Hamburg put together. Yes the wages of life is death, but when Ghanaians find themselves in a country with better health infrastructures then they should live longer.

Ghanaians in Hamburg are definitely doing something wrong because even in Ghana, where the rate of avoidable death (drinking and driving, bad roads, no road signs, poor medication, bribery at hospitals or unavailability of medical care) is high the folks are living longer.

Life expectancy in Ghana as at 2012 is about 61 years, so why this high rate of death in Germany.Why the community awaits the results from the authorities to guide the people as to what is wrong and what can be done better. The following unscientific assumptions are making the air waves.

There is this weird speculation that the “Alster River” dislikes this black clothing’s of Ghanaians, the people are therefore disregarding the gods of the river. “The gods are not to blame”.

Ghanaians in Hamburg love burials and funerals above everything; they are seen every week organizing funerals of relatives that have passed away far in Ghana. First the “One Week” and then the “Funerals”.

What you love most is what shall kill you!
There are times the cemetery worker asked if a prominent person or a star is dead. One jokingly said this is a confirmation of the high rate of unemployment amongst the Ghana community.

It would be in the interest of the community to discourage all imported funerals and mobilize the people only when one of the inhabitants dies in Hamburg. The traumatic lifestyle; high divorce rate,  inability to cope with the structured German routine, the bureaucracy, the bad eating habits –eating heavy “fufu” at mid nights, disregard for good health, could be a contributing factor...

Husbands and wives building separate mansions through their menial job, to impress family members back home. Unfortunately 90% do not even sleep in these homes before the lucky ones join the colleagues at “Hamburg -Friedhof Ohlsdorf (Kapelle 10) “the biggest cemetery in the World.

One insanity is changing trains and busses on weekends from funerals and parties to another, sadly incorrectly dressed during the winter season. It is time the Ghana Union and opinion leaders stamp their authority, coordinate all social activities, ban one week funerals and imported funerals.

Whilst we all undertake weekly sporting activities, we encourage the Ghana Embassy in Berlin and the Ghana Union in Hamburg to seek from the German authorities the causes of these premature deaths and make public the findings, -names anonymous.

With all things being equal Ghanaians in Germany can live to be 81 years.

God Bless Ghana! 
God Bless Germany
Desmond John Beddy

Obesity is a growing problem within the African/Black community in Germany and Europe at Large.
With foods such as Fufu, Rice, Yam, Plantains as the staple unit, it makes it easy for Africans to gain weight so easily.

Akoto Degross was an obese individual who lived in Hamburg, Germany for a while where he was attending University and it was during this period that he decided to make a drastic change in his obese life by loosing half his body weight.

He had tried numerous times to loose weight but not until he lost his mother did he buckle up and strictly jump into loosing weight and living a healthier lifestyle.

In the video below, he discusses different reasons why Africans in the diaspora are over weight. He explained what they are doing wrong and how they can change and live better and healthier lives.

He also stated that the obesity epidemic is primarily rampant among the African Women in the diaspora.

He is an author and certified weight loss expert and runs a program called fat2fitghana (http://fat2fitghana.com/) which helps alot of people loose weight and live a healthier life style.

He has also written 2 books on how to loose weight.


1. 7 Simple steps to losing weight (http://amzn.to/2xcz8Wr)
2. Change what you eat Change how you look 
..Click this link to read it (http://amzn.to/2wKIHc7)

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COPYRIGHT@GFA COMMUNICATION -OTTO ADDO

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Otto Addo will remain in office as Ghana's national coach. According to the renowned journalist Saddick Adams, the current interim coach will sign a contract until the end of the year and will thus also coach the Black Stars at the World Cup in Qatar.

Addo joined Borussia Dortmund in September 2021 as co-coach of the Ghanaian side in parallel with his role as a talent manager. Before the successful World Cup play-offs against Nigeria (1:1, 0:0), he took over full-time responsibility. The former Bundesliga professional now retains this role.

Copyright@Andrew Svk/unsplash.com

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Yemen: The country that has suffered way too long.

Yemen crisis is the world’s most awful philanthropic emergency the world at any point saw, yet at the same time, it’s not to a great extent known and goes unrecognized. Let’s go through what kind of a never-ending nightmare Yemen has been going through and still is. 

1981: North Yemen acquired independence when the Ottoman Empire met its downfall, though South Yemen went on under Britain.

1967: South Yemen had continued under Britain until they pulled out on 30th November 1967 leaving them amidst an extreme terrorist crusade. 

A tactical subordination and 6-year civil war during the 1960s in which Saudi Arabia and Egypt supported inverse sides, ousts the Kingdom and lays out the Yemen Arab Republic.

1990: North and South Yemen off and on relationship came to an end when they put their differences aside and signed their unity agreement on May 22, 1990, forming the Republic of Yemen. After the unification, Ali Abdullah Saleh, President of North Yemen since 1978, advanced to Leader of the Republic of Yemen and Haydar Abu Bakar Attas became state head.

1994: The May-July 1994 civil war in Yemen was pursued between the military of the previous Northern and the Southern Yemeni States and their allies. The conflict brought about the loss of the southern military and the trip in the banishment of numerous Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP) pioneers and other Southern secessionists. 

1962-1970: The North Yemen civil war was fought in North Yemen in which Saudi Arabia and Egypt supported the opposing parties. The conflict started with a coup d’état in 1962 by progressive conservations led by Abdullah-as-Sallal, who overthrew Imam Muhammad Al Badr -the new ruler after Imam Ahmed- and proclaimed Yemen a Republic under his rule. The previous ruler disappeared on the Saudi Arabian border where they mobilized well-known help from Northern Shia clans to retake power, heightening quickly a full-scale common conflict. 

1970-1979: The cold war ended in 1970 when a Saudi-sponsored political agreement was formed between the two groups. Although, seven years later, a short military conflict led to another war in February 1979 (The Yemenite war). The conflict was created out of a breakdown in the relation between the two nations after the Leader of North Yemen, Ahmad al-Ghasmi, was killed on 24 June 1978 and Saljm Rubai Ali, a moderate Marxist who had been dealing with a proposed consideration between the two Yemen’s, was killed two days after the fact.

1986: Thousands pass on in the battle for control in the South, which successfully drives the original pioneers from office. Haider Abu Bakar al-Attas dominates and begins to pursue the unification of the 2 states.

2000: On October 12, a suicide attack by the terrorist group, Al-Qaeda against a U.S maritime detonated a little boat close by the USS Cole -a Navy Destroyer- as it was refuelling in the Yemeni port of Aden. The impact tore a 1,600 square-foot (150 square feet) opening in its body and left 17 mariners dead and 31 injured. 

2001: In February, violence in approach questions civil surveys and mandate, which backs augmentation to official term and powers.

2002February: Yemen ousts over 100 unfamiliar Islamic pastors in crackdown on Al Qaeda.

October: On 6 October, the French twofold structure oil big haulier, the Limburg of Aden was hit by explosives from a small craft. As a result, the starboard tank number 4 was holed in two spots and spilt hydrocarbon went ablaze. The fire went on for a day and a half (36 hours), killing one and injuring 12 crew members and coasting Yemen dear in lost power revenues.

2004June-August: Hundreds die as troops fight Shia insurgency led by Hussain Al-Houthi in the north. In June 2004, Houthi rebels began a revolt in the northern province of Saa’da. On August 5, 2004, Yemeni officials announced a major offensive to quash this rebellion in these northern mountains. In the six-week conflict that ensued, 500 People were killed—the first large-scale death toll in the conflict.

September: Saleh’s forces killed Hussain Al-Houthi. The Yemeni armed forces and air forces were utilized to stifle the resistance in the most distant north of Yemen, particularly in Sa’ada area. The Saudis got together with Sales in these missions. The Houthis won against both Saleh and the Saudi armed force, outperforming them both over and over.

2005March-April: Exactly 1,500 individuals were killed in a resurgence of battling between government forces and allies of the killed minister, presently calling themselves Houthis.

June: 23 June 2005, the Houthis military commander Abdullah al-Ruzami gave up to Yemeni authorities after tribal med mediators worked out a deal with the government. 

2007: Early in 2007, the Houthis rebels and Saleh’s administration again wind up in conflict. Battling goes on for a considerate length of time until Abdul-Malik Al-Houthi agrees with Saleh with the assistance of Qatar. The Yemeni government seized bases belonging to the Houthis in northern Yemen, following fighting that claimed 4,000 lives and drove approximately 2,500 civilians from their homes. On June 16, 2007, representatives of both sides announced a ceasefire in that three-year fight. The ceasefire was broken on January 10 2008, when Houthis attacked military bases near Jabal Marran.

2008March-September: The 2008 U.S embassy attack in Yemen in Sana’a on September 17, 2008, brought about 18 deaths and 16 injuries. Six attackers, six Yemeni police and six civilians were killed. This assault was the second happening around the same time, after a mortar attack prior in 2008 on March 18, missed the embassy and instead hit a close-by young ladies' school. Islamic Jihad of Yemen, an Al-Qaeda affiliate, claimed responsibility for the attack.

On April 6, three mortars hit residential complex housing western workers, including several U.S. Embassy employees in Sanaa, prompting the ordered departure of non-essential U.S. Embassy staff and family members.

On April 30, two mortars hit the Customs Administration parking lot, causing a large explosion just adjacent to the Italian Embassy, believed by many to have been the intended target.

In May, an AQY-affiliated group claimed that it fired a mortar onto the grounds of the presidential palace in Sanaa, but no official statement was released acknowledging the incident.

In July, AQY claimed responsibility for a suicide car bomb attack on a central security forces compound in Hadramaut that killed eight.

2009August: Operation Scorched Earth – a Yemeni military hostile in the Sa’ada governorate started in August 2009. It denoted the fifth rush of savagery during the continuous uprising by the Houthis against the public authority. 

November: 4th November- Houthis insurgency in Yemen, also known as Sa’ada War, was a military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis (the development additionally incorporates Sunnis) against the Yemeni military that started in Northern Yemen and has since swelled into a full-scale civil war. 

The conflict began to escalate on the border, with Houthi fighters infiltrating Saudi Arabia. In response, Saudi Arabia launched a large-scale military incursion into northern Yemen in November to address the infiltration of Houthi militias and stop attacks targeting Saudi border areas. By January 2010, this cross-border fighting had claimed the lives of 133 Saudi soldiers.

2010January-February: on 5th January, the Yemeni government launches campaigns in 3 provinces to battle Al-Qaeda fighters. 

On 30th January, the leader of the Shia Houthi rebel group in Northern Yemen, Abdul-Malik Al-Houthi says they will accept a ceasefire if government actions against them cease, which takes place in February when a cease-fire is agreed between Houthi fighters and the Yemeni government in Northern Yemen.

September: Up to 15,000 Yemeni civilians escaped their homes as the public authority sought after another hostile against separatists in the Southern province.

2011January: Demonstrations requiring the end of Ali Abdullah Saleh’s 33-year rule, began in January 2011. Saleh pledged not to search for re-election, but the protests spread. Security powers and Saleh’s allies sent down a crackdown that in the end left somewhere in the range of 200 and 2,000 people dead.

April: Ali Abdullah Saleh’s General People’s Congress (GPC) consulted to a Gulf Co-activity Council-handled agreement to surrender power, however, the president would not sign. This incited the Hashid ancestral alliance and a few armed force leaders to back the opposition, after which conflicts emitted in Sana’a. 

June: Ali Abdullah Saleh became seriously injured in a bombing and travelled abroad for medical treatment.

September-November: He returned to the presidential palace in September 2011 during recharged conflicts. It was only after November 2011 that he signed the deal that saw his deputy, Abdurabbuh Mansur Hadi, accept power and structure a solidarity government. 

2012February: Abdurabbuh Mansur Hadi was confirmed for a 2-year term as President in February 2012 after an election in which he stood unopposed but was unable to counter Al-Qaeda attacks in the capital as the year goes on. The same day Hadi was sworn in as the new President, Al-Qaeda launches a suicide bombing, claiming at least 26 people in the city of Mukalla. 

2014June: In June 2014, the process of political transition began to fall apart. The Hadi government decided to cut fuel subsidies, which led to a significant increase in prices and triggered protests and attacks from Houthis and their supporters. 

August: the turmoil started on 18th August as the Houthis, angered over a government-implemented explosion of fuel subsides, called for mass protests.

September: on 21st September, as the Houthis took control of Sana’a, the Yemeni army didn’t officially intercede, other than troops associated with General Ali Mohsen Al-Ahmar and the Muslim brotherhood-affiliated Al-Islah Party. In the wake of overseeing key government structures in Sana’a, the Houthis and the government marked an UN-handled bargain on 21st September to form a ‘unity government.

2015January: On 19th January, fighting broke out in Sana’a between Houthi forces and members of the President's guards. On the following day, Houthis seized the home of President Hadi, who was then positioned under house arrest, along with other senior authorities. 

On 20th January, Houthi rebels take over the home of the President resulting in their being put under house arrest, Hadi along with PM Bahah and the Yemeni cabinet resign. On 22nd January President Hadi, Prime Minister Khaled Bahah and the entire cabinet resigned.

On 29th January, Houthi rebels seize a Yemen military base South of the capital, Sana’a, where I.S military advisors once trained Yemeni counterterrorism powers to battle Al-Qaeda in the south of the country. The caught base was allegedly monitored by forces loyal to previous President Ali Abdullah Saleh.

February: On 21st February, President Hadi escaped to Aden, announcing that he intended to continue to exercise his Presidential functions. Meanwhile, the Prime Minister and key ministers remained under house arrest by the popular committees affiliated with the Houthis. 

March: On 20th March, Daesh gained international attention by carrying out suicide bombings on 2 mosques in the Yemen capital Sana’a which killed 137 people and wounded 357. The attack marked the beginning of an ongoing series of executions and bombings targeting mosques, Houthi headquarters, and Yemeni army bases. 

On 26th March, Saudi Arabia deployed its armed forces for Operation Decisive Storm at the request of President Hadi to help resist Houthi aggression. The Houthis were advancing toward the southern city of Aden, where the Yemeni Government was based, to remove him from power in another attempted coup. 

April: on 20th April, the Saudi representative for the coalition forces, Brigadier General Ahmed Asiri, reported that Operation Decisive Storm had ended and would be replaced by a new mission, Operation Renewal of Hope. The new operation was to check the beginning of a more restricted military pointed towards keeping the rebels from working. 

May: Yemen rebels fired rockets and mortars into Saudi Arabia, killing at least 3 and purportedly capturing 5 soldiers in an attack showing the insurgent's ability to launch assaults despite weeks of Saudi-led airstrikes targeting them.

June: On 12th June, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) leader and Al Qaeda Core (AQC) deputy director Nasir al-Wuhayshi was killed in a CIA drone strike in southeastern Yemen in the coastal city of Mukalla.

August: 15th August, Pro Hadi regained control of the entire Shabwah governorate, including the city of Ataq, after Houthi forces and their allies withdrew from the region. (Previously recapturing the governorates of Aden, Lahj, Dhale and Abyan on 11th August.

September: President Hadi returns to Aden after Saudi upheld government forces and those faithful to Hadi recover the port city from Houthi forces.

2016January: On 13th January, unidentified assailants shot and killed two traffic policemen, on Sheikh Othman's roundabout in Aden. On 14th January, unidentified militants planted an explosive device on a police car in Aden, killing two and wounding another. In both the attacks, Islamic extremists are suspected. On 28th January, at least seven people are killed in a suicide bomb attack near the presidential palace in Aden, Yemen. The Islamic State claims it was behind the attack. On 29th January, A suicide car bomber struck a checkpoint in the southern Yemen city of Aden, killing seven and wounding another eight. Islamic State affiliates in Yemen claimed responsibility for the attack.

April: In April 2016, the UN, acting under Resolution 2216, sponsored peace talks in Kuwait that included government forces and Houthi initiatives, but excluded AQAP and the Islamic state. During the talks, there were several breaches of the ceasefire, and the initiative petered out in August. Coalition airstrikes and ground fighting resumed.

According to the Yemen data project in 2016 alone, the coalition conducted 5,102 airstrikes, with strikes intensifying after talks collapsed. 

December.: The Saudi-led coalition members began with generally unhindered access to hi-tech military equipment. After repeated evidence of civilian casualties from Saudi-led airstrikes, in June 2016, the Obama Administration withdrew U.S. personnel from the joint U.S.-Saudi planning cell and suspended sales of precision-guided munitions to Saudi Arabia.

2017: By 2017, there was no functional state in Yemen. There were “warring statelets,” but no group or alliance had the political support or the military strength to reunite the country or achieve victory on the battlefield. The Houthi-Saleh alliance and the Saudi-led coalition both required external military backing to continue fighting. 

March: Trump reversed Obama’s June 2016 decision and stated his intention to process the suspended munitions sales to Saudi Arabia, despite documentation of continued unlawful strikes in Yemen. 

The UN Panel of Experts on Yemen reported that the coalition blockade of the Sana’a airport and Red Sea ports, which began in November 2017, has severely impleaded the import of humanitarian and commercial goods. They deem the blockade a weapon of war, threatening opponents with starvation. The Panel also found that the Houthi-Saleh forces have obstructed and prevented humanitarian access and distribution of relief in Sana’a. 

The health care system has been forced to make do with reduced financial resources and medical supplies at a time when violence rages and 50 per cent of children under the age of five are chronically malnourished. A breakdown in health, water and sanitation systems led to a cholera outbreak in 2017.

December: A series of violent confrontations between the Saleh and Houthi forces peaked with Saleh’s abrupt announcement in December 2017 that he was abandoning the alliances with the Houthis and would join his greatly diminished force with the Saudi-led coalition. His uprising was short-lived, however, and Saleh was murdered by the Houthis on December 4th.

2018January: An STC (Southern Transitional Council) move in January 2018 to expel Hadi government officials from Aden appeared to enjoy preliminary support from the U.A.E until Saudi Arabia forced a stand-down.

On 30th January, the SRF (Southern Resistance Forces) in Yemen backed by the U.A.E forcefully seized control of Aden, the interim capital of Saudi Arabia - backed and international recognized Yemeni government. 

In 2018, after years of violent conflict, Yemen had barely been able to exist as a state. The authority of the Hadi government has been so reduced that it was doubtful that it could ever reunite Yemen. The conflict is no longer Houthi and Saleh versus Government forces, as it was in 2015. It now involved multiple warring factions as well as the forces of the Saudi-led coalition and their proxy forces.

February: the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) formally adopted a highly politicized UN panel of Experts report on Yemen.

On 15th February, a United Nations Panel of Experts on Yemen report was formally adopted. The report had been circulated and discussed at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in January, with aspects of the document, which were not then public, being obtained by the press.

March: The Saudi Arabia military coalition intervention in Yemen dubbed ‘Operation Decisive Storm’ entered its fourth year. To mark the occasion, Houthi forces fired 7 ballistic missiles into Saudi Arabia shortly after midnight on March 25, which the Saudi military claimed its defence systems intercepted.

The President of the UN security reported that ‘the UN estimated that 22.2 million people were now in need of humanitarian assistance in Yemen, a rise of 3.4 million over 2017. Civilians were vulnerable to outbreaks of cholera and diphtheria at a time when Yemen institutions, including its health system, had been weakened.’

April: On 22nd April, an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition hit a wedding in the Bani Qa’is District at Hajjah Governorate, Yemen. Casualty estimates vary, with the Houthi owned Al-Masirah reporting the toll later that day to be at least 33 civilians including the bride. Forty-five other people were injured.

May: On 3rd May, the U.A.E deployed over 100 soldiers to the island of Socotra is an unofficial military deployment, dismissed Yemeni personnel and took administrative control of Socotra airport and seaport.

At the beginning of May, the U.A.E aircraft transported military vehicles equipment and some 100 troops to Yemen’s Indian Ocean island of Socotra, subsequently taking control of both airport and Marine terminal.

The Yemeni state news agency SABA reported on 24th May that President Hadi had appointed Khaled Al Yamani as his new foreign minister, replacing Abdel Malek al-Mekhlafi. 

June: In December 2017 military operations (including airstrikes) escalated in an attempt by the Government of Yemen (GoY), backed by coalition forces, to recapture Al-Hodeidah city, including its strategically important port. In June 2018, the coalition launched ‘Operation Golden Victory’. By the end of 2018, coalition forces had advanced north along the western coastline but were effectively stalled at the southern edge of the city, where armed conflict threatened to cripple port operations.

July: In July 2018, media reported internet services to almost 80 per cent of Yemen were disrupted due to damages to the fibre optic cable in three places in Al-Qanawis and Al Marawi’ah districts in Al Hodeidah Governorate.

August: An airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition fighting Shiite Houthi rebels in Yemen, hit a bus in a busy market on 9th August, killing at least 50 people including children, all under 15, years old and most under age 10, and wounding 77.

September: On 6th September, in Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled peace talks between Yemen’s government and Houthi rebels hung in the balance as both sides traded ultimatums and the UN envoy scrambled to meditate. Although the peace talks collapsed after 3 days of waiting for the Houthi movement delegation, the UN envoy vowed to press ahead with diplomacy.

Beginning in mid-September, Yemen became gripped by fuel shortages, affecting almost all parts of the country except the Marib governorate. Licensed fueling stations – which sell fuel at regulated prices – closed en masse in many areas, with massive queues forming at those that remained open. Black market fuel traders then stepped up to meet the market demand, selling petrol and diesel at significant markups from the regulated prices.

October: On 3rd October, Salah and Maydan Saleh, who were captured by the Houthis in December when their father’s forces turned against the rebels in a conflict that cost the elder Saleh his life, was released by the Houthi rebels.

November: United Nations Security Council (UNSC) member states began negotiating a new draft resolution related to the Yemen conflict in November, calling for measures to de-escalate the war and address the humanitarian crisis. This was the first proposed UNSC resolution related to Yemen since April 2015. Lobbying from Saudi Arabia and the United States, however, appeared to postpone any vote on the text at least until after the negotiations in Sweden

For the first time since adopting Resolution 2216 in April 2015, the UNSC introduced a new draft resolution for the council to consider and negotiate. The UK, penholder of the Yemen file at the council, led the drafting of the resolution on November 1, in consultation with the US. Top US and UK officials had days earlier, called for the warring parties in Yemen to enter a ceasefire and for a new round of UN-led peace consultations.

October-December: Representatives from Yemen’s warring parties sat at a negotiating table for the first time in more than 2 years at the beginning of December. The peace consultation – which took place in Sweden and we’re mediated by the United Nations Special Envoy for Yemen Martin Griffiths – followed international pressure for a ceasefire that begin in October and intensified through November.

December: 6th- 13th December: Houthis and IRG conveyed in Stockholm to discuss various de-escalation proposals and a possible road map to a comprehensive peace agreement. On 13 December, all parties agreed to the Stockholm Agreement which consists of three components: halting hostilities in the city of Al Hodeidah and mutually redeploying forces from the city and the ports of Al Hodeidah, As-Salif (80km north) and Ras Isa (50km north), an executive mechanism on activating the prisoner exchange agreement, and a statement of understanding on Taziz’z.

On 18th December, the ceasefire in Al Hodeidah took effect and was held with mostly minor violations until the end of the month.

On 29th December, a UN source and Houthis state that Houthi forces had begun redeploying from Al Hodeidah port as per the Stockholm Agreement.

2019January: On 10th January, a Houthi drone attack at Al And military base, killed at least 5 Yemeni soldiers and wounded 20 senior officers from the Yemeni army, including the country’s chief of staff. 

6 killed attending a military parade including the head if Yemeni intelligence. At least 25 military personnel were wounded including several senior officers from the Yemeni army, the country’s chief of staff and a government official. 

24th January: After two days of talks in Al Hodeidah city, representatives of the Hadi government and Houthis agreed on the format for the first phase of a withdrawal from the city and also agreed, in principle, on the second phase a UN statement said. Early February open-source reporting states that while humanitarian sources on the ground stated while airstrikes on the city have stopped, fighting has not decreased enough to allow for aid delivery to take place unhindered or to make Al Hodeidah safe for aid workers and/or civilians.

Despite a slight decrease in conflict and political dynamics shaped by the Stockholm Agreement signed in December 2018, humanitarian conditions continue to deteriorate, including increasing cholera caseloads from February to early May 2019.

Fighting in 2019 displaced 45,200 households (more than est. 271,000 individuals). This constitutes a 60 per cent increase on the 169,000 displaced within the same timeframe in 2018. The largest displacement incident in the January-May period was the displacement from Kushan and neighbouring districts, with over 21,000 people displaced on 25 February alone. 

March: Internet conflicts were also reported among groups supporting the GoY and within the Saudi-led coalition. Fighting between Islah aligned armed group and the U.A.E-backed 35th Armored Brigade occurred in March in Taziz’z, resulting in civilians casualties damage to civilian infrastructure and displacement.

Economic wrangling between Aden and Sana’a for the control of fuel supply chains led to fuel shortages and prices hikes in North Yemen in March and April. This disrupted transport networks services and put further pressure on stretched household budgets. 

The ongoing conflict has increased health and protection needs. Access to health services was particularly constrained in areas of fighting. Hospitals were closed, inaccessible or damaged in March in Taziz’z city and Kitaf district (Sa’ada governorate) against a higher level of health needs reported by the local population. Fear of attacks on hospitals resulted in some patients avoiding medical services and doctors not showing up for work.

The 25th February displacement was followed by large scale displacement from Abs at the end of March/beginning of April, with more than 40,000 people displaced within 11 days. Since then, displacement numbers have stayed at consistently lower levels, but exceed the numbers reported at the beginning of the year. Districts most affected by displacement were Abs in Hajjah, Az Zuhrah in Al Hodeidah, and Qa’atabah in Al Dhale’e. The number of IDPs in Al Dhale’e has been consistently increasing between January and May. By the end of May, storms and heavy rains caused increased displacement and destruction of over 500 temporary shelters in Beni Qais camp in Abs.

April: In Al Dhale’e, regular fighting was reported since the beginning of 2019 with a notable escalation in April around Qa’atabah and Damt districts. The fighting resulted in severe access constraints and the highest level of civilian casualties in the governorate in over a year. The Aden – Sana’a highway was effectively cut off, as well as connecting roads to Ibb and Taziz’z. As a result, the movement of goods and people between Aden, Taziz’z, and Sana’a has been severely limited. Distrust between the warring parties was exacerbated by repeated Houthi attacks on critical infrastructure in Saudi Arabia since mid-May, which led to heavy retaliatory airstrikes, particularly in the capital and the Taziz’z governorate. 

May: The trend of increasing levels of airstrike related casualties is expected to continue, aggravated by Houthi attacks on critical infrastructure in Saudi Arabia, which increased in intensity since May. Saudi retaliation is highly likely to result in increased air raids across Yemen, which will most likely continue to impact civilians, affecting 3,000 to 8,000 people across Yemen.

As of late May, the status of the Stockholm Agreement remains extremely fragile. Political negotiations have been stalled for months and the ceasefire has repeatedly been violated. The Houthis’ unilateral withdrawal from Al Hodeidah ports (Ras Isaa, Salef and Al Hodeidah) in the first half of May was criticised by the Government of Yemen (GoY). The GoY claim the Houthis continue to exercise effective control of the ports through local authorities and the coast guard. The withdrawal, which was supposed to be the first step toward implementing the Stockholm Agreement, was widely denounced by the GoY. The GoY subsequently accused the UN Special Envoy Martin Griffith of pro-Houthi bias and threatened to cease cooperation in the UN negotiations, resulting in serious risk of a collapse of the political process.

June: On 23rd June, a Houthi special forces carried out a drone attack on Abha International Airport, killing a Syrian national and wounding 21.

July: The U.A.E withdrew most of its forces from the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen following reported disagreements over the prospects of military victory, Emirati opposition to Islamist militants in Northern Yemen and Saudi support for Yemeni President Abdurabbuh Mansur Hadi.

August: Clashes occurred between the Yemeni government and STC forces, with the U.A.E carrying out airstrikes in support of STC. Across the country, civilians suffer from the lack of basic services, a spiralling economic crisis, abusive local security forces, and broken governorate, health, education, and judicial systems.

 The Saudi-led coalition carries out multiple airstrikes on a Houthi detention centre, killing and wounding at least 200. The attack was the single deadliest attack since the war began in 2015. Human Rights Watch has documented at least 5 deadly attacks by Saudi-led coalition naval forces on Yemeni fighting boats since 2018, killing at least 47 Yemeni fishermen, including 7 children. 

September: From August 2019 onwards, the Houthis escalated their military operations, called “victory from God”, in the Kitaf wa Al-Boqe'e axis in Sa’ada Governorate where it controlled several positions.

 On 14 September, two Saudi Aramco facilities located in Abqaiq and Khurais were attacked by drones and cruise missiles, and the Houthi forces claimed responsibility for the attack. The United Nations Security Council-mandated Panel of Experts expressed doubts that the drones and missiles used in the attack had a range allowing them to be launched from Yemeni territory under Houthi control, noting it was unlikely the Houthis were responsible for these attacks. Other attacks using similar weapons were fired from Yemen, and it is not believed that these relatively sophisticated weapons were either developed or manufactured in Yemen. 

On 20 September, the Houthis announced a unilateral suspension of strikes on Saudi Arabia, calling in return for a halt to Saudi airstrikes and a lifting of restrictions on access to northern Yemen. In late October, Houthi forces launched an offensive in Sa’ada Governorate against Yemeni government 

troops. Houthi forces captured most of the Al-Malaheet region in Al-Dhaher following a major offensive against coalition forces.

The Group of Experts also verified that on 24 September 2019, Al-Muzaimir village, Al-Fakhir town, Al-Dhale’e Governorate, over 30 civilians were killed and injured as a result of two airstrikes. The first airstrike hit a house on a farm in this remote rural area, killing at least 10 people – three men, three women, three girls and one boy, and destroying most of the western part of the main building. A second airstrike, 15 to 20 minutes later, set a pick-up truck on fire when the munition landed four metres behind the moving vehicle that was carrying an injured 8-year-old girl who had survived the first strike. At least 20 people, mostly children, were injured from the two strikes, including 11 seriously injured. Some of the injured were taken to a hospital in Ibb governorate

November: The signing of the Stockholm Agreement in December 2018 brought hope of a political solution to the conflict. Less than a year later, the signing of the Riyadh Agreement on 5 November 2019 was meant to resolve tensions in the south between the Government of Yemen and the Southern Transitional Council. This had been preceded by informal talks between the Houthis and Saudi Arabia in September 2019.

However, the implementation of both agreements had stalled. Despite the inclusive and participatory process led by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General on Yemen, there was a little immediate prospect of peace. Notwithstanding an initial decrease in hostilities, there had been an intensification of fighting on the ground. 2020 has seen shifting power dynamics in the south.

2020January: Heavy fighting recommenced in Yemen. On 18th January, the Houthis allegedly launched missiles at one of the governments of Yemen military camps, El-Estikbal camp in Ma’rib. The strike reportedly killed more than 10 soldiers from the 4th Presidential Brigade. Battles intensified after the strike, with both sides suffering heavy losses. At the end of January, Houthi forces captured the Sana’a-Ma’rib governorate border checkpoint, a highly strategic intersection where the roads heading north to Al-Jawf and east to Ma’rib meet. This occurred amidst intense fighting along previously stalemated front lines in Al-Jawf, Nihm and Ma’rib. 

February: One of the deadliest series of airstrikes of 2020 was conducted by the coalition in the early hours of 15th February 2020, on a village in Al-Hayjah Area, Al-Maslub district, Al-Jawf governorate, killing 32 people -6 men, 7 women, 8 boys and 11 girls and injuring 21 -3 men, 6 women, 5 boys and 7 girls. 2 houses and 1 car were also injured. 

By the end of February, Al-Jawf’s capital, Al-Hazm has fallen under Houthi control. The Houthi forces continued their offensive in Al-Jawf, and by April had control over the district of Khabb wa ash Sha’af, which borders Saudi Arabia.

March: On 20th March 2020, the UN Secretary-General made an urgent appeal for an immediate end to hostilities in Yemen and for the parties to focus on reaching a negotiated political settlement and doing everything possible to counter COVID-19. 

On 28th March, Saudi air defences intercepted 2 ballistic missiles launched by Houthi forces in Yemen -one towards Riyadh, the other toward the city of Jizan. On 30th March, the coalition conducted a series of airstrikes in Sana’a.

April: On 5th April, several motor rounds were fired by the Houthis towards the area of Central Prison (Central Rehabilitation Facility) in the northwest of Taziz’z city. One round killed 6 women –5 inmates and 1 guard- as well as 2 young girls who were visiting their mothers in the female section of the prison and injured 6 other female inmates. A man who was inside his vehicle was injured by another round that landed outside the prison, to finalize the release the next day of over 100 prisoners, including some of the women who were killed and injured, as part of efforts by the Judiciary and lawyers to ease the prison population amid concerns over COVID-19.

On 10th April, the first case of COVID-19 in Yemen arrived at a patient living in Ash Shihr in Hadramaut.

On 26th April, the STC declared the establishment of a ‘self-rule’ administration, though it withdrew that declaration in July 2020.

May: on 26th May, Houthi fighters attacked a military base in Ma’rib governorate, killing 7 people.

On 28th May, UN agencies and other international humanitarian partners launch a US$2.41 billion appeal for additional funds to fight the spread of COVID-19 in Yemen.

June: On 2nd June, a male photojournalist, 34 years old, was killed on 2 June 2020 by unidentified armed men close to his house in Dar Saad district, close to Aden. He had worked for various international press agencies covering the war in southern governorates. His work was praised internationally, in particular by other journalists, for the French Press Agency documentary “The Battle of Aden”. It was reported that before Ramadan 2020 he had received various death threats. On 3 June 2020, the STC made a public statement condemning his death and announced that a thorough investigation would be conducted.

In the Shabwah governorate, on the morning of 4 June 2020, a 16-year-old boy was killed and 5 adult men were injured by the explosion of an anti-vehicle landmine in As-Safra region, Usaylan district. 

Over 1,628 access incidents were reported between March and June 2020 across 49 districts in 16 governorates. Al-Jawf, Ma’rib, Sana’a, and Aden governorates reported the highest number if access incidents overall as well as an increasing number of incidents between March and June, even when the Number dropped off in other areas.

July: On 12th July, a coalition airstrike killed 9 civilians, including 7 children and 2 women and injured 2 children and 2 women in Washhah district, Hajjah Governorate. On 15th July, another airstrike resulted in the death of at least 10 civilians, including 6 women and 2 children, and injured 3 adults and 4 children, in Masafa village, east of Al-Hazm in Al-Jawf governorate.

August: the STC announced its withdrawal from talks to implement a peace deal brokered by Saudi Arabia, within hours, clashes resumed between separatists and Yemeni government forces.

September: the UN announced that the Iran-backed Houthi rebels and the Hadi government supported by the Saudi-led military coalition, agreed to exchange about 1,081 detainees and prisoners related to the conflict as part of a release plan in early 2020. 

October: Yemen’s warring parties began prisoner swap, raising peace prospects.

November: Reporters reported that in back-channel talks between Saudi Arabia and the Houthis, Saudi officials indicated that they would be willing to sign a ceasefire and end their air and sea blockade of Yemen in exchange for the creation of a ‘buffer zone’ where Houthi forces ‘leave a corridor along the Saudi borders to prevent incursions and artillery fire’.

The Houthis fired cruise missiles into Saudi territory and damaged a Saudi Aramco oil distribution station in Jeddah, a major part located in Saudi Arabia’s western coast a day after the conclusion of a Saudi government-hosted virtual G20 leaders summit.

December: On 18th December, Yemen’s President, Abed Rabbi Mansur Hadi, currently exiles in Saudi Arabia, announced a cabinet reshuffle. The new Yemeni government was formed following a power-sharing agreement in Riyadh earlier in December between supporters of President Hadi and the southern separatist movement which fought Hadi forces in Aden last year.

Prime Minister Maeen Abdul-Malik was reappointed to head the new cabinet, which includes 5 ministers from Yemen’s biggest political blocs, including STC and Islah party 

The Unity government, which includes representatives from STC and the Hadi government was sworn in on 26th December 2020. This government, formed after months of negotiations was a significant achievement of the Riyadh agreement. However, the Unity government had not been able to meet all its objectives.

On 30th December, Aden International Airport was attacked by missiles, just as the newly formed Unity government landed. At least 22 people were killed and more than 50 wounded in the attack.

2021January: The Houthis were designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) on 10th January 2021 as a swan song of the Trump administration in Washington, but the decision was restricted less than a month later but newly inaugurated U.S President Joe Biden, after the UN and aid organization testified it would paralyze humanitarian operations.

February: Since President Joe Biden, 4th February 2021 policy pronouncement on Yemen, the U.S has ceased support to offensive operations by Saudi Arabia and its coalition partners and made some changes to the U.S missile and air defence posture in Saudi Arabia.

On 6th February, Houthi forces launched extended attacks along multiple fronts in the northwest, west and south of Ma’rib governorate.

March: On 22nd 2021, Riyadh presented a new peace proposal that involved the lifting of the Saudi-led coalition's partial blockade of Hodeidah Port, the reopening of Sana’a International Airport and peace talks among the Yemeni parties involved in the conflict, though it was quickly rejected by the Houthis, who insisted the proposal was ‘nothing new’, but discussions between the two sides continued for the rest of the year, aided by Omani mediation and parallel to Saudi Arabia’s de-escalation talks with Iran.

Saudi Arabia began to offer indirect foreign currency support for Yemen in the form of a US$422 million fuel grant for electricity, delivered via the Saudi Development and Reconstruction Program for Yemen (SSRPY).

Houthi authorities increased customs fees from 30% to 50% on commercial imports coming from government-held areas.

In March, one protest, backed by the STC, led to the storming of Aden’s Ma’ashiq Palace, the seat of government. In Hadramawt, on March 30, security forces west of Mukalla city fired on demonstrators, killing one civilian, and leading to the declaration of a state of emergency by Hadramawt’s governor.

April: A rocket strike on 3rd April 2021, apparently from Houthi military positions, killed a boy and wounded others who were playing soccer in Ma’rib city, with no military presence reported near the site at the time.

On 15th April, the UN humanitarian chief warned that the works largest humanitarian crisis in Yemen is getting worse with the COVID-19 pandemic ‘roaring back in recent weeks as the Arab world's poorest country faces a large-scale famine’. 

On 18th April, officials in Yemen said fighting between forces of the internationally recognized government and Houthi rebels raged in the provinces of Ma’rib and Taiz’z, killing at least 70 fighters on both sides.

On 29th April, in Yemen, a landmine explosion near the strategic port city of Hodeidah, killed 3 children and wounded 3 and their mother.

May: On 1st May, Yemen security officials said floods have swept through parts of the country amid heavy seasonal rains, leaving at least 13 people dead, including 2 children.

July: In late July, the Yemeni government increased its own customs tariffs by doubling the customs exchange rate from YR250 per US$1 to YR599 per US$1 for all goods besides basic foods, fuel and medicine.

Clashes continued across Ma’rib, Al-Hodeidah and Al-Bayda.

August: In August 2021, a Houthi UAV attack against a military base in the southern governorate of Lahj killed at least 30 soldiers.14 months later, a combined Houthi UAV/missile attack struck the port of Mokha, destroying several warehouses filled with humanitarian goods. The attack coincided with the visit of the ROYG Ministry of Transportation to mark the reopening of Mokha commercial port, which had been closed for several years.

September: In 2021, in the centre governorate of Al-Bayda, forces aligned with ROYG initially pushed the Houthis back. However, in September 2021, the Houthis declared control of the governorate.

November: As of November 2021, Yemen remained beset by multiple armed and political conflicts which, in their totality, have crippled central governance, devastated the national economy and exacerbated a long-standing humanitarian crisis.

The epic centre of fighting was around the northern governorate and city of Ma’rib, the last areas under the control of the internationally recognized Republic of Yemen Government (ROYG) led by Yemeni President Abdurabbuh Mansur Hadi.

2022January: on 21st January, an airstrike killed 82 people and injured 266 others which were condemned by the UN. The Saudi-led coalition denied involvement in the attack.

February: Al Masira reported from Yemen that Emirati – Saudi fighter jets targeted the Al-Hafa and Al-Nahdir areas in the Yemeni capital 9 times in the early hours of 6th February and 2 days later Saudi fighter jets bombed the Yemeni capital extensively. Saudi coalition fighters also carried out 29 airstrikes against Sana’a, Hajjah, Ma’rib and Al-Jawf provinces. Another airstrike, on 21st February, by the Saudi coalition hit a residential house in Yemen’s Hajjah overnight killing and wounding 9 people, most of them women and children.

From 25th to 27th February, the Saudi coalition dropped airstrikes and attacks on Yemen continuously. The first Saudi artillery and drone strikes in Northern Yemen killed 3 civilians. The second artillery attack on the borders of the Yemeni province of Sa’ada killed 3 and wounded more than 7 civilians. The third they had targeted the besieged Sana’a airport several times. 

March: The United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) said in a statement that 47 Yemeni children had been killed in the last 2 months. 

The statement said that according to UN investigations more than 10,200 children have been killed and injured since the start of the war in Yemen (7 years ago).

On 14th March, several activists and journalists called for an end to the siege of Yemen by launching an international campaign, #EndTheSiegeOnYemen,#ارفعوا_الحصار_عن_اليمن, in both English and Arabic. 

April: On 1st April, it was announced that a two-month truce would be out under effect on 2nd April must be the first step in ending the country’s devastating war, stated UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres. 

The truce started at 19:00 on 2nd April, local time, and coincided with the start of the holy month of Ramadan.

By: Syeda Omaila Ayaz.

Photo: Markus Spiske/unsplash.com

News

Full text of Vladimir Putin's speech

Russia's President announced the attack on Ukraine in a televised speech. We document the speech, which is a declaration of war.

"Dear citizens of Russia! Dear friends!

Today I again consider it necessary to come back to the tragic events in Donbass and the key issues of ensuring Russia's own security.

I would like to start with what I said in my speech on February 21 this year. It's about what worries us the most, these fundamental threats that, year after year, step by step, are crudely and unabashedly directed at our country by irresponsible politicians in the West. By that I mean the eastward expansion of the NATO bloc, bringing its military infrastructure closer to Russia's border.

It is well known that over the past 30 years we have persistently and patiently tried to reach an agreement with the leading NATO countries on the principles of equal and indivisible security in Europe. In response to our proposals, we have consistently encountered either cynical deceit and lies or attempts at pressure and blackmail as the North Atlantic Alliance continues to expand, despite our protests and concerns. The war machine is in motion and, I repeat, is approaching our borders.

Why is all this happening? Why this outrageous way of speaking from a position of uniqueness, infallibility and permissiveness? Where does this careless, contemptuous attitude towards our interests and absolutely legitimate demands come from? The answer is clear, understandable and obvious. The Soviet Union weakened in the late 1980s and then collapsed completely

In general, one has the impression that almost everywhere, in many regions of the world, where the USA goes to enforce its order, bloody, non-healing wounds, boils from international terrorism and extremism remain

This also includes the promises made to our country not to expand NATO one inch further east. I repeat: you have deceived us, or, to put it in the vernacular, simply dumped

By the way: American politicians, political scientists and journalists themselves write and say that a veritable empire of lies has been created in the USA in recent years. It's hard not to agree - because that's the way it is

In the military sphere, even after the collapse of the USSR and the loss of much of its potential, modern Russia is now one of the most powerful nuclear powers in the world, in addition to having certain advantages in a number of cutting-edge weapon systems. There should therefore be no doubt that a direct attack on our country would result in defeat and dire consequences for any potential attacker

The problem is that on the areas adjacent to us - I emphasize on our own historical areas - an anti-Russia hostile to us is being created, which has been placed under complete external control, intensively populated by the armed forces of the NATO countries and pumped full of the latest weapons.

For the US and its allies, this is a so-called policy of containment of Russia, an obvious geopolitical dividend. For our country, however, it is ultimately a matter of life and death, a matter of our historical future as a nation

The leading NATO countries are supporting extreme nationalists and neo-Nazis in Ukraine to achieve their own goals, who in turn will never forgive the people of Crimea and Sevastopol for their free choice to reunite with Russia

They will, of course, go to Crimea, as they did in Donbass, with war to kill, just as the punitive squads of gangs of Ukrainian nationalists, Hitler's collaborators during the Great Patriotic War, killed defenseless people. They also openly lay claim to a number of other Russian territories (...)

Circumstances require us to act decisively and immediately. People's republics of Donbass have asked Russia for help. In this regard, in accordance with Article 51(7) of the UN Charter, with the approval of the Federation Council and in accordance with the Friendship and Assistance Treaties with the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic, ratified by the Federation Assembly, I have decided to conduct a special military operation.

We don't intend to occupy all of Ukraine, but to demilitarize it. The aim of the Russian special operations is to protect the people who have been mistreated and murdered by the Kiev regime for eight years. To this end, we will seek to demilitarize and denazify Ukraine and bring to justice those who have committed numerous bloody crimes against civilians, including Russian citizens.

Clashes between Russia and nationalist forces in Ukraine are inevitable. It's only a matter of time. They prepare, they wait for an opportune moment. Now they even claim possession of nuclear weapons. We won't allow that.

Russia cannot feel safe, cannot develop and cannot exist if it is constantly threatened by Ukraine. The appropriation of Ukraine by the North Atlantic Alliance is unacceptable. Russian politics is based on freedom, and everyone should be able to enjoy this right, including residents of Ukraine. Everyone should have the freedom to decide about their own future and that of their children. And we consider it important that this right can be exercised by all peoples living on the territory of present-day Ukraine. Anyone who wants it.

Neither at the founding of the Soviet Union nor after the Second World War were people living in what is now Ukraine ever asked how they wanted to organize their own lives. The Ukrainian military has pledged allegiance to its people - not to the anti-popular junta plundering Ukraine.

Dear comrades! Your fathers, grandfathers and great-grandfathers did not fight against the Nazis to defend our common fatherland so that today's neo-Nazis could take power in Ukraine. I urge you to disobey the criminal orders, lay down your arms immediately and go home. All soldiers of the Ukrainian army who comply with this requirement are allowed to leave the war zone and are free to return to their families.

We respect and will continue to respect the sovereignty of all emerging countries in the post-Soviet space. An example of this is the assistance we have provided to Kazakhstan, which has faced tragic events and whose statehood and integrity have been called into question.

NATO, on the other hand, is approaching the borders of Russia. Moscow has been trying for 30 years to reach an agreement not to expand the bloc to the east and has faced deception, pressure and blackmail in the process. Russia is ready for any development, all decisions have been made. I hope I am heard.

The real strength lies in justice and truth standing on the side of Russia.

Dear citizens of Russia, the well-being, the existence of entire states and peoples, their success and viability always have their origin in a strong root system, their culture of values, the experience of their ancestors. And, of course, it directly depends on the ability to quickly adapt to an ever-changing life, the cohesion of society, its willingness to consolidate and join forces to move forward. Strength is always in demand. Always – but it can be of different quality.

At the heart of the politics of the empire of lies, to which I referred at the outset, is, above all, raw, direct violence. In such cases we say: You have power, you don't need intelligence. But you and I know that real power lies in the justice and truth that is on our side.

Now a few important, very important words for those who might be tempted to join the action from the side. Whoever tries to hinder us, let alone create a threat to our country and our people, must know that Russia's response will be immediate and will lead to consequences that you have never seen in your history. We are prepared for any development of events. All necessary decisions have been made in this regard. I hope to be heard."

Translated from German into English
By Kwame Sekyere

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DR. FRANCE-AIMÉE GAÏL

Lifestyle

CEO of Livenat SAS, Dr. France Aimée Gaïl, in an interview on Radio TopAfric’s health show, encouraged the use of natural-based cosmetic products because it has proven to be a much healthier option.

Dr. France Aimée Gaïl graduated from the University of Orléans with a PH.D. in Organic Chemistry and has expertise in the Pharmaceutical field as well as product development. Her experience as a chemist has driven her to develop healthy products for all hair types.

The company’s brand, DEVANCE COSMETIQUES based in France, has since 2013 produced the best natural based cosmetic products, she says.

DEVANCE COSMETIQUES has products for all hair types, namely; shampoos, conditioners, hair oil, to mention a few.

 In response to a question from a listener, Dr. France Aimée reiterated that people experiencing alopecia, a common autoimmune disorder that often results in unpredictable hair loss, can use DEVANCE COSMESTIQUES natural based oil to restore hair mostly if the condition is not genetically transmitted.

WHAT ARE NATURAL BASED COSMETICS?

Natural based cosmetics are cosmetics made from raw materials sourced from nature, such as plants and minerals, and a renewable natural source.

People who live in Hamburg can access the hair products at the Modern Hair Creation Salon, Lübecker Straße 82, 22087 Hamburg.

Alternatively, one can visit www.devance-cosmetiques.com or place your order on Amazon.de.

Die Welt wurde in eine „neue Normalität“ eingeweiht, die kaum die Normalität der Ära darstellt, in der wir leben. Könnte dies ein Weckruf sein, um nicht nur die Welt zurückzusetzen und schließlich die Menschheit zu zwingen, langsamer zu werden und neu zu bewerten Leben und es leben?

Auf der anderen Seite ändern sich bestimmte Dinge zum Schlimmsten. Bestimmte Dinge, die in der Vergangenheit ungewöhnlich und ungewöhnlich erschienen, sind heute an der Tagesordnung. Als Christ kann das Zeugnisgeben und Opfer dieser Dinge Ihren Glauben an Gott und an Christus beeinträchtigen.

Aus diesem Grund bringen Ihnen Radio TopAfric von TopAfric Media und Foundation Community Church das lang erwartete motivierende Radioprogramm MOMENT OF INSPIRATION. Es wird ein Programm erstellt, das dazu beiträgt, unser Verständnis des Wortes Gottes zu verbessern, unseren Glauben als Christen aufzubauen und zu intensivieren.

Sie stimmen mir darin zu, dass wir uns einer Vereinigung anschließen müssen, die uns dazu inspiriert, für Gott zu leben und für Ihren Glauben einzutreten, unabhängig von den Umständen. 

Begleiten Sie Minister Emmanuel, Gastgeber von MOMENT OF INSPIRATION (MOI), an diesem und jedem Sonntag um 10.00 Uhr MEZ, während Gastgeber und Panel sich mit inspirierenden Themen wie Glauben, Taufe, Führung, Erlösung, Gebet und vielem mehr befassen, die unsere tägliche Arbeit betreffen Christliches Leben und Existenz.

Beten Sie mit uns auf MOMENT ON INSPIRATION (MOI) an und genießen Sie die Botschaften der Gründerin und Leiterin der Faith Community Church, Missionarin Nana Yaw.

Von zu Hause aus können Sie es sich zur Aufgabe machen, live auf Facebook über die offizielle Seite des Senders auf Facebook @TopAfric mitzumachen.

Alternativ können Sie Radio TopAfric in der TuneIn App finden oder den Radiolink unter www.topafric finden oder einfach auf diesen Link https://www.topafric.com/index.php/radio2 klicken  , um dieses Programm jeden Sonntagmorgen zu genießen.

Moment der Inspiration !!!! Lassen Sie sich von uns inspirieren !!!!!

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